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Discussion Draft 2 of Version 3, 27 July 2006


Copyright (C) 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor Boston MA 02110-1301 USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, 
but changing it is not allowed.


The licenses for most software are designed to take away 
your freedom to share and change it. By 
contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to 
guarantee your freedom to share and change 
free software--to make sure the software is free for all its 
users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use 
the GNU General Public License for most of our software; 
it applies also to any other program whose 
authors commit to using it. You can apply it to your 
programs, too. 

When we speak of free software, we are referring to 
freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are 
designed to make sure that you have the freedom to 
distribute copies of free software (and charge for this 
service if you wish), that you receive source code or can 
get it if you want it, that you can change the 
software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that 
you know you can do these things. 

To protect your rights, we need to make requirements that 
forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to 
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responsibilities if you distribute copies of the 
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For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, 
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code. And you must show them these terms so they know 
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Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with 
two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, 
and (2) offer you this License which gives you legal 
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For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL 
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software. For both users' and authors' sake, the GPL 
requires that modified versions be marked as 
changed, so that their problems will not be associated 
erroneously with the original version. 

Some computers are designed to deny users access to 
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Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software 
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0. Definitions.

In this License, each licensee is addressed as "you," while 
"the Program" refers to any work of authorship 
licensed under this License. A "modified" work includes, 
without limitation, versions in which material has 
been translated or added. A work "based on" another work 
means any modified version, formation of 
which requires permission under applicable copyright law. 
A "covered work" means either the unmodified 
Program or a work based on the Program. 

To "propagate" a work means doing anything with it that 
requires permission under applicable copyright 
law, except executing it on a computer, or making 
modifications that you do not share. Propagation 
includes copying, distribution (with or without modification), 
making available to the public, and in some 
countries other activities as well. To "convey" a work 
means any kind of propagation that enables other 
parties to make or receive copies, excluding sublicensing. 

A party's "essential patent claims" in a work are all patent 
claims that the party can give permission to 
practice, whether already acquired or to be acquired, that 
would be infringed by making, using, or selling 
the work. 

1. Source Code.

The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of 
the work for making modifications to it. "Object 
code" means any non-source version of a work. 

The "System Libraries" of an executable work include 
every subunit such that (a) the identical subunit is 
normally included as an adjunct in the distribution of either 
a major essential component (kernel, window 
system, and so on) of the specific operating system (if 
any) on which the object code runs, or a compiler 
used to produce the object code, or an object code 
interpreter used to run it, and (b) the subunit (aside 
from possible incidental extensions) serves only to enable 
use of the work with that system component or 
compiler or interpreter, or to implement a widely used or 
standard interface for which an implementation is 
available to the public in source code form. 

The "Corresponding Source" for a work in object code form 
means all the source code needed to 
generate, install, and (for an executable work) run the 
object code and to modify the work, except its 
System Libraries, and except general-purpose tools or 
generally available free programs which are used 
unmodified in performing those activities but which are not 
part of the work. For example, Corresponding 
Source includes scripts used to control those activities, 
interface definition files associated with the 
program source files, and the source code for shared 
libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that 
the work is specifically designed to require, such as by 
complex data communication or control flow 
between those subprograms and other parts of the work. 

The Corresponding Source also includes any encryption or 
authorization keys necessary to install and/or 
execute modified versions from source code in the 
recommended or principal context of use, such that 
they can implement all the same functionality in the same 
range of circumstances. (For instance, if the 
work is a DVD player and can play certain DVDs, it must 
be possible for modified versions to play those 
DVDs. If the work communicates with an online service, it 
must be possible for modified versions to 
communicate with the same online service in the same 
way such that the service cannot distinguish.) A 
key need not be included in cases where use of the work 
normally implies the user already has the key 
and can read and copy it, as in privacy applications where 
users generate their own keys. However, the 
fact that a key is generated based on the object code of 
the work or is present in hardware that limits its 
use does not alter the requirement to include it in the 
Corresponding Source. 

The Corresponding Source may include portions which do 
not formally state this License as their license, 
but qualify under section 7 for inclusion in a work under 
this License. 

The Corresponding Source need not include anything that 
users can regenerate automatically from other 
parts of the Corresponding Source. 

2. Basic Permissions.

All rights granted under this License are granted for the 
term of copyright on the Program, and are 
irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This 
License explicitly affirms your unlimited 
permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from 
running it is covered by this License only if the 
output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This 
License acknowledges your rights of "fair use" 
or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law. 

This License permits you to make and run privately 
modified versions of the Program, or have others 
make and run them on your behalf. However, this 
permission terminates, as to all such versions, if you 
bring suit against anyone for patent infringement of any of 
your essential patent claims in any such 
version, for making, using, selling or otherwise conveying a 
work based on the Program in compliance 
with this License. 

Propagation of covered works other than conveying is 
permitted without limitation. Sublicensing is not 
allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary. Conveying is 
permitted under the conditions stated below. 

3. No Denying Users' Rights through Technical Measures.

Regardless of any other provision of this License, no 
permission is given for modes of conveying that deny 
users that run covered works the full exercise of the legal 
rights granted by this License. 

No covered work constitutes part of an effective 
technological "protection" measure under section 1201 of 
Title 17 of the United States Code. When you convey a 
covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid 
circumvention of technical measures that include use of 
the covered work, and you disclaim any intention 
to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of 
enforcing the legal rights of third parties 
against the work's users. 

4.[1] Verbatim Copying.

You may copy and convey verbatim copies of the 
Program's source code as you receive it, in any 
medium, provided that you conspicuously and 
appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate 
copyright notice; keep intact all license notices and 
notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all 
recipients, along with the Program, a copy of this License 
and the central list (if any) required by section 
7. The recipients of these copies will possess all the rights 
granted by this License (with any added terms 
under section 7). 

You may charge any price or no price for each copy that 
you convey, and you may offer support or 
warranty protection for a fee. 

5.[2] Conveying Modified Source Versions.

You may copy and convey a work based on the Program, 
or the modifications to produce it from the 
Program, in the form of source code under the terms of 
section 4 above, provided that you also meet all of 
these conditions: 

a) The modified work must carry prominent notices stating 
that you changed the work and the date of any 

b) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this 
License to anyone who comes into 
possession of a copy. This License must apply, 
unmodified except as permitted by section 7 below, to 
the whole of the work, and all its parts, regardless of how 
they are packaged. This License gives no 
permission to license the work in any other way, but it 
does not invalidate such permission if you have 
separately received it. 

c) If the modified work has interactive user interfaces, each 
must include a convenient feature that 
displays an appropriate copyright notice, and tells the user 
that there is no warranty for the program (or 
that you provide a warranty), that users may convey the 
modified work under this License, and how to 
view a copy of this License together with the central list (if 
any) of other terms in accord with section 7. 
Specifically, if the interface presents a list of user 
commands or options, such as a menu, a command to 
display this information must be prominent in the list; 
otherwise, the modified work must display this 
information at startup. However, if the Program has 
interactive interfaces that do not comply with this 
subsection, your modified work need not make them 

To the extent that identifiable sections of the modified 
work, added by you, are not derived from the 
Program, and can be reasonably considered independent 
and separate works in themselves, then this 
License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections 
when you convey them as separate works, not 
specifically for use in combination with the Program. 

A compilation of a covered work with other separate and 
independent works, which are not by their nature 
extensions of the covered work, in or on a volume of a 
storage or distribution medium, is called an 
"aggregate" if the compilation and its resulting copyright 
are not used to limit the access or legal rights of 
the compilation's users beyond what the individual works 
permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an 
aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the 
other parts of the aggregate. 

6.[3] Conveying Non-Source Forms.

You may copy and convey a covered work in object code 
form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, 
provided that you also convey the machine-readable 
Corresponding Source under the terms of this 
License, in one of these ways: 

a) Convey the object code in a physical product (including 
a physical distribution medium), accompanied 
by the Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical 
medium customarily used for software 

b) Convey the object code in a physical product (including 
a physical distribution medium), accompanied 
by a written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for 
as long as you offer spare parts or customer 
support for that product model, to give any third party a 
copy of the Corresponding Source for all the 
software in the product that is covered by this License, on 
a durable physical medium customarily used 
for software interchange, for a price no more than your 
reasonable cost of physically performing this 
conveying of source. 

[b1) Convey the object code in a physical product 
(including a physical distribution medium), 
accompanied by a written offer, valid for at least three 
years and valid for as long as you offer spare parts 
or customer support for that product model, to provide 
access to copy the Corresponding Source from a 
network server at no charge.] 

c) Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy 
of the written offer to provide the Corresponding 
Source. This alternative is allowed only occasionally and 
noncommercially, and only if you received the 
object code with such an offer, in accord with subsection 
6b or 6b1. 

d) Convey the object code by offering access from a 
designated place, and offer equivalent access to the 
Corresponding Source in the same way through the same 
place at no extra charge. You need not require 
recipients to copy the Corresponding Source along with 
the object code. 

[If the place to copy the object code is a network server, 
the Corresponding Source may be on a different 
server that supports equivalent copying facilities, provided 
you have explicitly arranged with the operator of 
that server to keep the Corresponding Source available for 
as long as needed to satisfy these 
requirements, and provided you maintain clear directions 
next to the object code saying where to find the 
Corresponding Source.] 

e) Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission 
provided you know that, and inform other peers 
where, the object code and Corresponding Source of the 
work are being offered to the general public at no 
charge under subsection 6d. 

The Corresponding Source conveyed in accord with this 
section must be in a format that is publicly 
documented, with an implementation available to the public 
in source code form, and must require no 
special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying. 

A separable portion of the object code, whose source code 
is excluded from the Corresponding Source as 
a System Library, need not be included in conveying the 
object code work. 

7. Additional Terms.

You may have received the Program, or parts of it, under 
terms that supplement the terms of this License. 
These additional terms may include additional 
permissions, as provided in subsection 7a, and additional 
requirements, as provided in subsection 7b. When you 
convey copies of a covered work, unless the work 
also permits use under a previous version of this License, 
it must list, in one central place in the source 
code, the complete set of additional terms governing all or 
part of the work. 

a. Additional Permissions. 

Additional permissions make exceptions from one or more 
of the requirements of this License. A license 
document containing a clause that permits relicensing or 
conveying under this License shall be treated as 
a list of additional permissions, provided that the license 
document makes clear that no requirement in it 
survives such relicensing or conveying. 

Any additional permissions that are applicable to the entire 
Program are treated as though they were 
included in this License, as exceptions to its conditions, to 
the extent that they are valid under applicable 
law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the 
Program, that part may be used separately under 
those permissions, but the entire Program remains 
governed by this License without regard to the 
additional terms. 

b. Additional Requirements. 

Additional requirements are terms that further constrain 
use, modification or propagation of covered works. 
This License affects only the procedure for enforcing 
additional requirements, and does not assert that 
they can be successfully enforced by the copyright holder. 
Only these kinds of additional requirements 
are allowed by this License: 

0) terms that require preservation of specified reasonable 
legal notices or author attributions; or 

1) terms that require that the origin of the material they 
cover not be misrepresented, or that modified 
versions of that material be marked in specific reasonable 
ways as different from the original version; or 

2) warranty or liability disclaimers that differ from the 
disclaimers in this License; or 

3) terms that prohibit or limit the use for publicity purposes 
of specified names of licensors or authors, or 
that require that certain specified trade names, 
trademarks, or service marks not be used for publicity 
purposes without express permission, other than in ways 
that are fair use under applicable trademark law; 

4) terms that require, if a modified version of the material 
they cover is a work intended to interact with 
users through a computer network, that those users be 
able to obtain copies of the Corresponding Source 
of the work through the same network session; or 

5) terms that wholly or partially terminate, or allow 
termination of, permission for use of the material they 
cover, for a user who files a software patent lawsuit (that 
is, a lawsuit alleging that some software infringes 
a patent) not filed in retaliation or defense against the 
earlier filing of another software patent lawsuit, or in 
which the allegedly infringing software includes some of 
the covered material, possibly in combination with 
other software; or 

6) terms that are precisely equivalent in type and extent to 
a requirement expressly stated in this 
License, or that deny permission for activities that are 
clearly not permitted, expressly or otherwise, by 
this License. 

All other additional requirements, including attorney's fees 
provisions, choice of law, forum, and venue 
clauses, arbitration clauses, mandatory contractual 
acceptance clauses, requirements regarding changes 
to the name of the work, and terms that require that 
conveyed copies be governed by a license other than 
this License, are prohibited. 

c. Terms Added or Removed by You. 

When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at 
your option remove any additional permissions 
from that copy, or from any part of it. Some additional 
permissions require their own removal in certain 
cases when you modify the work. 

Additional requirements are allowed only as stated in 
subsection 7b. If the Program as you received it 
purports to impose any other additional requirement, you 
may remove that requirement. 

You may place additional permissions, or additional 
requirements as allowed by subsection 7b, on 
material, added by you to a covered work, for which you 
have or can give appropriate copyright 
permission. Adding requirements not allowed by 
subsection 7b is a violation of this License that may lead 
to termination of your rights under section 8. 

If you add terms to a covered work in accordance with this 
section, you must place, in the relevant source 
files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to 
those files, or a notice indicating where to find the 
applicable terms. 

8.[4] Termination.

You may not propagate or modify the Program except as 
expressly provided under this License. Any 
attempt otherwise to propagate or modify the Program is 
void. If you violate this License, any copyright 
holder may put you on notice by notifying you of the 
violation, by any reasonable means, provided 60 
days have not elapsed since the last violation. Having put 
you on notice, the copyright holder may then 
terminate your license at any time. However, parties who 
have received copies, or rights, from you under 
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long 
as they remain in full compliance. 

9.[5] Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

You are not required to accept this License in order to 
receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary 
propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a 
consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to 
receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. 
However, nothing else grants you permission to 
propagate or modify the Program or any covered works. 
These actions infringe copyright if you do not 
accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or 
propagating the Program (or any covered work), you 
indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and all 
its terms and conditions. 

10.[6] Automatic Licensing of Downstream Users.

Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient 
automatically receives a license from the original 
licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject 
to this License, including any additional terms 
introduced through section 7. You may not impose any 
further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of 
the rights thus granted or affirmed, except in the limited 
ways permitted by section 7. Therefore, you may 
not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for 
exercise of rights granted under this License. You 
are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third 
parties to this License. 

If propagation results from a transaction transferring control 
of an organization, each party to that 
transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives 
a license and a right to possession of the 
Corresponding Source of the work from the party's 
predecessor in interest. 

11. Patents.

You receive the Program with a covenant from each author 
and conveyor of the Program, and of any 
material, conveyed under this License, on which the 
Program is based, that the covenanting party will not 
assert (or cause others to assert) any of the party's 
essential patent claims in the material that the party 
conveyed, against you, arising from your exercise of rights 
under this License. If you convey a covered 
work, you similarly covenant to all recipients, including 
recipients of works based on the covered work, not 
to assert any of your essential patent claims in the 
covered work. 

If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a non-
sublicensable patent license that is not 
generally available to all, you must either (1) act to shield 
downstream users against the possible patent 
infringement claims from which your license protects you, 
or (2) ensure that anyone can copy the 
Corresponding Source of the covered work, free of charge 
and under the terms of this License, through a 
publicly available network server or other readily accessible 

Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or 
limiting any implied license or other defenses 
to infringement that may otherwise be available to you 
under applicable patent law. 

12.[7] No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, 
agreement or otherwise) that contradict the 
conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from 
the conditions of this License. If you cannot 
convey the Program, or other covered work, so as to 
satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this 
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a 
consequence you may not convey it at all. For 
example, if you accept a patent license that prohibits 
royalty-free conveying by those who receive copies 
directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you 
could satisfy both it and this License would be to 
refrain entirely from conveying the Program. 

[13.[8] Geographical Limitations.

If the conveying and/or use of the Program is restricted in 
certain countries either by patents or by 
copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who 
places the Program under this License may add 
an explicit geographical limitation on conveying, excluding 
those countries, so that conveying is permitted 
only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such 
case, this License incorporates the limitation as if 
written in the body of this License.] 

14.[9] Revised Versions of this License.

The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or 
new versions of the GNU General Public 
License from time to time. Such new versions will be 
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ 
in detail to address new problems or concerns. 

Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If 
the Program specifies that a certain numbered 
version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, 
you have the option of following the terms and 
conditions either of that numbered version or of any later 
version published by the Free Software 
Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version 
number of this License, you may choose any 
version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. 

[15.[10] Requesting Exceptions.

If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other 
free programs under other licenses, write to the 
author to ask for permission. For software which is 
copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to 
the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make 
exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by 
the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives 
of our free software and of promoting the 
sharing and reuse of software generally.] 


16.[11] Disclaimer of Warranty.

There is no warranty for the Program, to the extent 
permitted by applicable law. Except when otherwise 
stated in writing the copyright holders and/or other parties 
provide the Program "as is" without warranty of 
any kind, either expressed or implied, including, but not 
limited to, the implied warranties of 
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The 
entire risk as to the quality and performance of 
the Program is with you. Should the Program prove 
defective, you assume the cost of all necessary 
servicing, repair or correction. 

17.[12] Limitation of Liability.

In no event unless required by applicable law or agreed to 
in writing will any copyright holder, or any other 
party who may modify and/or convey the Program as 
permitted above, be liable to you for damages, 
including any general, special, incidental or consequential 
damages arising out of the use or inability to 
use the Program (including but not limited to loss of data 
or data being rendered inaccurate or losses 
sustained by you or third parties or a failure of the Program 
to operate with any other programs), even if 
such holder or other party has been advised of the 
possibility of such damages. 


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