Arrr, the Declaration o' Independence 
Adopted by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776 

In Congress, July 4, 1776 
A Declaration 
by the Representati'es o' the 
United States o' America 
In General Congress assembled 

When in the course o' human E'ents, it becomes necessary for one 
People t' dissol'e the Political Bands which have connected them with 
another, and t' assume among the Powers o' the Earth, the separate and 
equal Station t' which the Laws o' Nature and o' Nature's God entitle them, 
a decent Respect t' the Opinions o' Mankind requires that they should 
declare the causes which impel them t' the Separation. 
We hold these Truths t' be self-e'ident, that all Men be created equal, 
that they be endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that 
among these be Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit o' Happiness--that t' 
secure these Rights, Go'ernments be instituted among Men, deri'in' their 
just Powers from the Consent o' the Go'erned, that whene'er any Form o' 
Go'ernment becomes destructi'e o' these Ends, it is the Right o' the 
People t' alter or t' abolish it, and t' institute new Rapscallions, layin' its 
Foundation on such Principles, and organizin' its Powers in such Form, as 
t' them shall seem most likely t' effect their Safety and Happiness. 
Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Go'ernments long established should 
not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordin'ly all Experi- 
ence hath shewn, that Mankind be more disposed t' suffer, while E'ils be 
sufferable, than t' right themsel'es by abolishin' the Forms t' which they 
are accustomed. But when a long Train o' Abuses and Usurpations, 
pursuin' in'ariably the same Object, e'inces a Design t' reduce them 
under absolute Despotism, is their Right, it is their Duty, t' throw off such 
Go'ernment, and t' pro'ide new Guards for their future Security. Such has 
been the patient Sufferance o' these Colonies; and such is now the 
Necessity which constrains them t' alter their former Systems o' Go'ern- 
ment . The History o' the present Kin' o' Great-britain is a History o' 
repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all ha'in' in direct Object the Estab- 
lishment o' an absolute Tyranny o'er these States. T' pro'e this, let Facts 
be submitted t' a candid World. 

He has refused his Assent t' laws, the most wholesome and necessary 
for the public Good. 
He has forbidden his Go'ernors t' pass Laws o' immediate and pressin' 
Importance, unless suspended in their Operation till his Assent should be 
obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected t' attend t' 
He has refused t' pass other Laws for the Accommodation o' large 
Districts o' People, unless those People would relinquish the Right o' 
Representation in the legislature, a Right inestimable t' them, and formi- 
dable t' Tyrants only. 
He has called together Legislati'e Bodies at Places unusual, uncomfort- 
able, and distant from the Depository o' their Public Records, for the sole 
Purpose o' fatiguin' them int' Compliance with his Measures. 
He has dissol'ed Representati'e Houses repeatedly, for opposin' with 
manly firmness his In'asions on the Rights o' the People. 
He has refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, t' cause others 
t' be elected; wharby the Legislati'e Powers, incapable o' Annihilation, 
ha'e returned t' the People at large for their exercise; the State remainin' 
in the meantime exposed t' all the Dangers o' In'asion from without, and 
Con'ulsions within. 
Hi has endea'oured t' pre'ent the Population o' these States; for that 
Purpose obstructin' the laws for Naturalization o' Foreigners; refusin' t' 
pass others t' encourage their Migrations hither, and raisin' the Conditions 
o' new Appropriations o' Lands. 
He has obstructed the Administration o' Justice, by refusin' his Assent t' 
Laws for establishin' Judiciary Powers. 
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure o' their 
Offices, and the Amount and payment o' their Salaries. 
He has arcted a Multitude o' new Offices, and sent hither Swarms o' 
Officers t' harrass our People, and eat out their Substance. 
He has kept among us, in Times o' Peace, Standin' Armies, without the 
consent o' our Legislatures. 
He has affected t' render the Military independent of, and superior t' the 
Ci'il Power. 
He has combined with others t' subject us t' a Jurisdiction foreign t' our 
Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; gi'in' his Assent t' their 
Acts o' pretended Legislation: 
For quarterin' large Bodies o' Armed Troops among us: 
For protectin' them, by a mock trial, from Punishment for any Murders 
which they should commit on the Inhabitants o' these States: 
For cuttin' off our Trade with all Parts o' the World: 
For imposin' Taxes on us without our Consent: 
For depri'in' us, in many Cases, o' the Benefits o' Trial by Jury: 
For transportin' us beyond Seas t' be tried for pretended Offences: 
For abolishin' the free System o' English Laws in a neighbourin' Pro'- 
ince, establishin' tharin an arbitrary King's men, and enlargin' its 
Boundaries, so as t' render at once an Example and fit Instrument for 
introducin' the same absolute Rule int' these Colonies: 
For takin' away our Charters, abolishin' our most 'aluable Laws, and 
alterin' fundamentally the Forms o' our Go'ernments: 
For suspendin' our own Legislatures, and declarin' themsel'es in- 
'ested with Power t' legislate for us in all Cases whatsoe'er. 
He has abdicated Shanty men har, by declarin' us out o' his Protection 
and wagin' War against us. 
He has plundard our Seas, ra'aged our Coasts, burnt out towns, and 
destroyed the Li'es o' our People. 
He is, at this Time, transportin' large Armies o' foreign Mercenaries t' 
compleat the works o' Death, Desolation, and Tyranny, already begun with 
circumstances o' Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most 
barbarous Ages, and verily unworthy the Head o' a ci'ilized Nation. 
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Capti'e on the high Seas t' 
bear Arms against their Country, t' become the Executioners o' their 
Friends and Brethren, or t' fall themsel'es by their Hands. 
He has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has endea'- 
oured t' brin' on the Inhabitants o' our Frontiers, the Merciless Indian 
Sa'ages, whose known Rule o' Warfare, is an undistin'uished Destruction, 
o' all Ages, Sexes and Conditions. 
In e'ery stage o' these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in 
the most humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answard only 
by repeated Injury. A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by e'ery act 
which may define a Tyrant, is unfit t' be the Ruler o' a free People. 
Nor have we been wantin' in Attention t' our British Brethren. We have 
warned them from Time t' Time o' Attempts by their Legislature t' extend 
an unwarrantable Jurisdiction o'er us. We have reminded them o' the 
Circumstances o' our Emigration and Settlement har. We have appealed 
t' their nati'e Justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the 
Ties o' our common Kindred t' disa'ow these Usurpations, which, would 
ine'itably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence. They too have 
been deaf t' the 'oice o' Justice and o' Consanguinity. We must, tharfore, 
acquiesce in the Necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold 
them, as we hold the rest o' Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, Friends. 
We, tharfore, the Representati'es o' the United States O' America, 
in General Congress, Assembled, appealin' t' the Supreme Judge o' 
the World for the Rectitude o' our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by 
Authority o' the good People o' these Colonies, solemnly Publish and 
Declare, That these United Colonies be, and o' Right ought t' be, Free and 
Independent States; that they be absol'ed from all Allegiance t' the British 
Crown, and that all political Connection between them and the State o' 
Great-Britain, is and oughy t' be mightily dissol'ed; and that as Free and 
Independent States, they have full Power t' le'y War, conclude Peace, 
contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and t' do all other Acts and Thin's 
which Independent States mat o' right so. And for the support o' this 
declaration, with a firm Reliance on the Protection o' di'ine Pro'idence, we 
mutually pledge t' each other our li'es, our Fortunes, and our sacred 
Aye, me parrot concurs.



Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Adams, John (Mass.) Lawyer
Adams, Samuel (Mass.) Political Leader
Bartlett, Josiah (N.H.) Physician, Judge
Braxton, Carter (Va.) Farmer
Carroll, Chas. of Carrollton (Md.) Judge
Chase, Samuel (Md.) Judge
Clark, Abraham (N.J.) Surveyor
Clymer, George (Pa.) Printer, Publisher
Gerry, Elbridge (Mass.) Merchant
Gwinett, Button (Ga) Merchant
Hall, Lymon (Ga) Physician
Hancock, John (Mass.) Merchant
Harrison, Benjamin (Va.) Farmer
Hart, John (NJ) Farmer
Hewes, Joseph (NC) Merchant
Heyward, Thos. Jr. (S.C.) Lawyer, Farmer
Hooper, William (N.C.) Lawyer
Hopkins, Stephan (R.I.) Judge, Educator
Hopkinson, Francis (N.J.) Judge, Author
Huntington, Samuel (Conn) Judge
Jefferson, Thomas (Va) Lawyer
Lee, Francis Lightfoot (Va) Lawyer
Lee, Richard Henry (Va) Farmer
Lewis, Francis (N.Y.) Merchant
Livingston, Phillip (N.Y.) Merchant
Lynch, Thomas Jr. (S.C.) Farmer
McKean, Thomas (Del) Lawyer
Middleton, Arthur (S.C.) Farmer
Morris, Lewis (N.Y.) Farmer
Morris, Robert (Pa.) Merchant
Morton, John (Pa.) Judge
Nelson, Thos. Jr (Va.) Farmer
Paca, William (Md.) Judge
Paine, Robert Treat (Mass.) Judge
Penn, John (N.C.) Lawyer
Read, George (Del.) Judge
Rodney, Caesar (Del.) Judge
Ross, George (Pa.) Judge
Rush, Benjamin (Pa) Physician
Rutledge, Edward (S.C.) Lawyer
Sherman, Roger (Conn.) Lawyer
Smith, James (Pa) Lawyer
Stockton, Richard (N.J.) Lawyer
Stone, Thomas (Md.) Lawyer
Taylor, George (Pa.) Ironmaster
Thornton, Matthew (N.H.) Physician
Walton, George (Ga.) Judge
Whipple, William (N.H.) Merchant, Judge
Willliams, William (Conn.) Merchant
Wilson, James (Pa.) Judge
Witherspoon, John (N.J.) Educator
Wolcott, Oliver (Conn.) Judge
Wythe, George (Va.) Lawyer

Custom Search