Section 9--Provision as to migration or importation of
certain persons. Habeus corpus, bills of attainder, etc.
Taxes, how apportioned. No export duty. No commercial
preference. Money, how drawn from Treasury, etc. No titu-
lar nobility. Officers not to receive presents, etc.
1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now
existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by Congress
prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may
be imposed on such imporation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.
2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended,
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require
3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.
4. No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to
the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. (Modified by
5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State.
6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or
revenue to the ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels
bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in
7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of
appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the
receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time
8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person
holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of
the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind
whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.
Section 10--States prohibited from the exercise of cer-
1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant
letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make
anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill
of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or
grant any title of nobility.
2.No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or
duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for
executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts,
laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury
of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and
control of the Congress.
3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of
tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any
agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or
engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will
not admit of delay.
Section 1--President; his term of office. Electors of Pres-
ident; number and how appointed. Electors to vote on same
day. Qualification of President. On whom his duties devolve
in case of his removal, Article IV
Section 1-- Each State to give credit to the public acts,
etc., of every other State.
Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records,
and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by
general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and pro-
ceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
Section 2-- Privileges of citizens of each State. Fugitives
from justice to be delivered up. Persons held to service
having escaped, to be delivered up.
1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and
immunities of citizens in the several States.
2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who
shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the
Executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be
removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.
(3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof,
escaping into another, shall in consequence of any law or regulation
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up
on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.) (This
clause was superseded be Amendment XIII.)
Section 3--Admission of new States. Power of Congress
over territory and other property.
1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no
new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other
State; nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or
parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States
concerned as well as of the Congress.
2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful
rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to
the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as
to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
Section 4--Republican form of government guaranteed.
Each state to be protected.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Repub-
lican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion,
and on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legis-
lature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.
Constitution: how amended; proviso.
The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it neces-
sary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application
of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a convention
for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents
and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legistatures
of three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths
thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the
Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the
year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the
first and fourth clauses in the Ninth Section of the First Article; and that no
State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the
Certain debts, etc., declared valid. Supremacy of Con-
stitution, treaties, and laws of the United States. Oath to
support Constitution, by whom taken. No religious test.
1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adop-
tion of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under
this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
2. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be
made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made,
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the
land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any thing in the
Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the mem-
bers of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers,
both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath
or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be
required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United
What ratification shall establish Constitution.
The ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for
the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the
Done in convention by the unamimous consent of the States present the
Seventeenth day on September in the year of our Lord one thousand
seven hundred and eighty seven, and of the independence of the United
States of America the Twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto
subscribed our names.
George Washington, President and deputy from Virginia
New Hampshire--John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman
Massachusetts--Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King
Connecticut--Wm. Sanl. Johnson. Roger Sherman
New York--Alexander Hamilton
New Jersey--Wil. Livingston, David Brearley, Wm. Paterson, Jonathan Dayton
Pennsylvania--B. Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt. Morris, Geo. Clymer,
Thos. FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv. Morris
Delaware--Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford Jun., John Dickinson, Richard
Bassett, Jaco. Broom
Maryland--James McHenry, Daniel of Saint Thomas' Jenifer, Danl. Carroll
Virginia--John Blair, James Madison Jr.
North Carolina--Wm. Blount, Rich'd
Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamson
South Carolina--J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles
Pinckney, Pierce Butler
Georgia--William Few, Abr. Baldwin
Attest: William Jackson, Secretary