Section 9--Provision as to migration or importation of

certain persons. Habeus corpus, bills of attainder, etc.

Taxes, how apportioned. No export duty. No commercial

preference. Money, how drawn from Treasury, etc. No titu-

lar nobility. Officers not to receive presents, etc.

1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now

existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by Congress

prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may

be imposed on such imporation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended,

unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require


3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

4. No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to

the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. (Modified by

Amendment XVI.)

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State.

6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or

revenue to the ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels

bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in


7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of

appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the

receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time

to time.

8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person

holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of

the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind

whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

Section 10--States prohibited from the exercise of cer-

tain powers.

1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant

letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make

anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill

of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or

grant any title of nobility.

2.No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or

duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for

executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts,

laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury

of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and

control of the Congress.

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of

tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any

agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or

engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will

not admit of delay.

Article II

Section 1--President; his term of office. Electors of Pres-

ident; number and how appointed. Electors to vote on same

day. Qualification of President. On whom his duties devolve

in case of his removal, Article IV

Section 1-- Each State to give credit to the public acts,

etc., of every other State.

Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records,

and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by

general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and pro-

ceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

Section 2-- Privileges of citizens of each State. Fugitives

from justice to be delivered up. Persons held to service

having escaped, to be delivered up.

1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and

immunities of citizens in the several States.

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who

shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the

Executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be

removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.

(3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof,

escaping into another, shall in consequence of any law or regulation

therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up

on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.) (This

clause was superseded be Amendment XIII.)

Section 3--Admission of new States. Power of Congress

over territory and other property.

1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no

new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other

State; nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or

parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States

concerned as well as of the Congress.

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful

rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to

the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as

to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4--Republican form of government guaranteed.

Each state to be protected.

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Repub-

lican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion,

and on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legis-

lature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.

Article V

Constitution: how amended; proviso.

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it neces-

sary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application

of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a convention

for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents

and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legistatures

of three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths

thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the

Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the

year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the

first and fourth clauses in the Ninth Section of the First Article; and that no

State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the


Article VI.

Certain debts, etc., declared valid. Supremacy of Con-

stitution, treaties, and laws of the United States. Oath to

support Constitution, by whom taken. No religious test.

1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adop-

tion of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under

this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

2. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be

made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made,

under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the

land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any thing in the

Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.

3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the mem-

bers of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers,

both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath

or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be

required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United


Article VII.

What ratification shall establish Constitution.

The ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for

the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the


Done in convention by the unamimous consent of the States present the

Seventeenth day on September in the year of our Lord one thousand

seven hundred and eighty seven, and of the independence of the United

States of America the Twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto

subscribed our names.

George Washington, President and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire--John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts--Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut--Wm. Sanl. Johnson. Roger Sherman

New York--Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey--Wil. Livingston, David Brearley, Wm. Paterson, Jonathan Dayton

Pennsylvania--B. Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt. Morris, Geo. Clymer,

Thos. FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv. Morris

Delaware--Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford Jun., John Dickinson, Richard

Bassett, Jaco. Broom

Maryland--James McHenry, Daniel of Saint Thomas' Jenifer, Danl. Carroll

Virginia--John Blair, James Madison Jr.

North Carolina--Wm. Blount, Rich'd

Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamson

South Carolina--J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles

Pinckney, Pierce Butler

Georgia--William Few, Abr. Baldwin

Attest: William Jackson, Secretary


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